STATE OF EMERGENCY PRACTICES AND HUMAN RIGHTS: THE CASE OF MASS DISMISSALS OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEES IN TURKEY

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omerbedir@yahoo.com

He has a Bachelor degree in Public Administration from Marmara University, Istanbul. He received a Master degree on EU and Political Science from IEP of Strasbourg. He was admitted to the renowned French École E.N.A. (Ecole Nationale d'Administration) where he followed the "Cycle International Longue" programme. He was awarded a Ph.D. degree in Modern Turkish History from Hacettepe University, Ankara. He worked between 2005-2016 as a career diplomat at the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He served in several Turkish diplomatic missions abroad. He is currently an independent researcher specialized in international relations and
human rights issues (Turkey).

Resumo

The declaration of state of emergency is a common legal practice used by states to overcome extraordinary situations. Within the framework of the state of emergency, on the one hand, the competences of the governments are increased and, on the other hand, the rights and freedoms of individuals are limited or suspended temporarily. The main goal of the state of emergency is to provide the necessary legal means that will enable the political government and the bureaucratic administration to end the extraordinary situation as early as possible. The governments shall use these extraordinary competences fairly and justly. These competences shall not be abused for political purposes and for intimidation of opponents. Even though the rights and freedoms can be limited or suspended during the state of emergency, basic human rights cannot be violated. Practices of the state of emergency shall strictly fall within the scope of the situation which rendered it necessary. This article examines the balance between state of emergency practices and respect for human rights in the particular case of Turkey, which declared the state of emergency in the aftermath of the failed coup of July 2016. In this respect, a special focus is devoted to the case of the mass dismissal of public servants by extraordinary decrees during the state of emergency and to the conformity of these mass dismissals with the European Convention on Human Rights.

La déclaration d'état d'urgence est un moyen juridique utilisé par les États pour surmonter des situations extraordinaires. Dans le cadre d'état d'urgence, d'un part, les compétences des gouvernements sont accrues et, d'autre part, les droits et libertés des individus sont limités ou bien suspendus temporairement. L'objectif principal de l'état d'urgence est de fournir, pour mettre fin aux situations extraordinaires dans les plus brefs délais possibles, les moyens nécessaires au gouvernement et à la bureaucratie. Les gouvernements devraient utiliser les compétences extraordinaires d'une manière juste et équitable. Les compétences reconnues par l'état d'urgence ne devraient pas être utilisées à des fins politiques tel qu'intimider les opposants. Même si certains droits et libertés peuvent être limités ou bien suspendus, les droits fondamentaux ne peuvent pas être violés sous prétexte de l'état d'urgence. En plus, les pratiques d'état d'urgence devraient se limiter aux faits et aux cas qui l'ont engendré. Cet article étudie l'équilibre entre l'état d'urgence et le respect des droits de l'homme dans le cas particulier de la Turquie qui a déclaré l'état d'urgence juste après la tentative de coup d'État avorté de juillet 2016. À cet égard, une attention particulière sera consacrée aux licenciements massifs des fonctionnaires publiques par des décrets-lois extraordinaires pendant l'état d'urgence et à la conformité de ces licenciements avec la Convention Européenne des Droits de l'Homme.

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Como citar este artigo

Bedir, Ömer (2021). State of emergency practices and human rights: The case of mass dismissals of public employees in Turkey. Janus.net, e-journal of international relations. Vol12, Nº. 1, May-October 2021. Consulted [online] at date of last visit, https://doi.org/10.26619/1647-7251.12.1.12

Article received on 22 December, 2020 and accepted for publication on 10 March, 2021

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