POLITICAL TURNS AND PERCEPTIONS IN THE FOREIGN POLICIES OF ARGENTINA AND BRAZIL (2003-2019)

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gpdoval@gmail.com

Holder of a Ph.D. in International Relations. Researcher at the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas CONICET-Argentina). Professor of Problems of International Relations at the Faculty of Political Science and International Relations of the National University of Rosario (UNR-Argentina).

Resumo

In the evolution of contemporary international politics, ideological turns are important factors that affect the resetting of governments’ external agendas and of intra-regional and extra-regional ties. All of them are affected by the worldviews of political leaders who occupy a prominent place in governments and by the types of leadership that presidents choose to have in the exercise of their functions. This prompts us to analyse and reflect on the forms of international insertion South American countries in the regional, continental and global scene based on the perceptions of these leaders. The challenge is to analyse the pre-existing and emerging perceptions between Argentina and Brazil in the period 2003-2019 and how they shaped the regional integration processes. At the same time, this paper examines their trends based on the operational milieu, that is, according to the international and regional context and the evaluation of integrationist alternatives. The hypothesis is that the changes that took place in the operational milieu were a determining factor in the setting of the psychological milieu; and that the resetting of the agenda regarding regional integration shows both a change in perceptions and an effort to adapt to external and internal political turns. Thus, among the various existing perceptions, we highlight as the most relevant three ideal models/types that move towards two extremes to achieve a third that synthesizes them: the strategic alliance; nationalist-military thought (or traditional suspicion); and Mutually Assured Trust (MAT). The creation of concepts such as the MAT implies advancing in a relational model that removes uncertainty from the bilateral relationship.

En el devenir de la política internacional contemporánea, los giros ideológicos son factores importantes que inciden sobre la (re)configuración de las agendas externas de los gobiernos, de los vínculos intrarregionales y extra regionales. Todos ellos se ven afectados por las cosmovisiones de los líderes políticos que ocupan un lugar destacado en los gobiernos y por los tipos de liderazgos que los presidentes escogen desempeñar en el ejercicio de su función. Esto nos obliga a analizar y reflexionar sobre las vías de inserción internacional de los países sudamericanos en el escenario regional, continental y global en función de las percepciones de estos líderes. En función de ello, el desafío que asumimos consiste en analizar las percepciones preexistentes y emergentes entre Argentina y Brasil en el período 2003-2019 y como las mismas configuraron los procesos de integración regional. Al mismo tiempo, examinar sus tendencias en función del operational milieu; es decir, del contexto internacional y regional y la evaluación de las alternativas integracionistas. La hipótesis es que las mutaciones que tuvieron lugar en el operational milieu fueron un factor determinante en la configuración del psychological milieu; y que la reconfiguración de la agenda respecto de la integración regional muestra tanto un cambio de percepciones como un esfuerzo por adaptarse a los giros políticos externos e internos. Así, entre las varias percepciones existentes, rescatamos como más relevantes tres modelos/tipos ideales que van hacia dos extremos para lograr un tercero que los sintetiza: la alianza estratégica; el pensamiento nacionalista-militar (o la suspicacia tradicional); y la Confianza Mutua Asegurada. La creación de conceptos como el de CMA supone avanzar en un modelo relacional que quite incertidumbre a la relación bilateral.

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Como citar este artigo

Doval, Gisela Pereyra (2020). “Political turns and perceptions in the foreign policies of Argentina and Brazil (2003-2019)”. In Janus.net, e-journal of international relations. Vol. 11, No. 2 Consulted [online] at date of last visit, DOI: https://doi.org/10.26619/1647-7251.11.2.4

Article received on 23 December, 2019 and accepted for publication on 21 September, 2020

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