Ever since the civil war of 1998/99 the country is characterized by significant political instability where, despite holding regular elections, there is significant political violence in the form of political assassinations and coup d’états. This period is also characterized by a complex set of overlapping, nonhierarchical interventions by different foreign actors.
Most significant bilateral state interventions occurred by Senegal in the civil war and by Angola in 2011/2012 with the Missão Militar Angolana na Guiné-Bissau (MISSANG). The most significant multilateral actor is ECOWAS, first with a mission during the civil war (ECOMOG), then with a mission to replace MISSANG from 2012 to 2020 (ECOMIB), and it has just now been announced its return in the aftermath of the failed coup in February 2022.
Alongside these initiatives there have been attempts at Security Sector Reform (SSR) by the UN, EU and in the MISSANG and ECOMIB missions, while the UN has kept a Peacebuilding office in the country since the civil war up until 2020.